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从四大理论/教学框架看任务教学研究的发展
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从四大理论/教学框架看任务教学研究的发展
袁芳远(美国海军学院)
摘要:在过去三十余年时间里,国际第二语言研究界对任务教学倾注了极高的热情,但不同时期的研究 关注点有很大的不同,彰显了二语习得理论的发展。本文将对出现在不同时期的四大任务教学理论/教学框 架做一综述性讨论,回溯整体二语习得研究及任务教学研究的发展轨迹,并吸引更多的研究者关注这一领 域,推进相关研究的发展。
关键词:任务教学研究,第二语言习得研究
[中图分类号]H319 [文献标识码]A [文章编号]1674-8犯1-(2015)07-0040-06
[doi 编码]10. 3969斤 issn. 1674-8921. 2015. 07. 009
1.引言
任务式教学自1987年由Prabhu提出并率先实 施以来,广泛受到国际第二语言语教学界和研究界 的关注。由于课堂任务形式灵活多样,可人为地创 造仿真语言环境,因此以任务为主或为辅的教学方式 作者简介:袁芳远,美国海军学院语言文化系副教授、博士。 主要研究方向为第二语言习得、任务教学法、形式教学法。 电子邮箱:. eU 为众多的二语教师接纳和采用,成为二语课堂不可 或缺的教学手段。在过去三十几年时间里,国际二 语研究界对任务式教学及其灵魂“课堂任务”的研究 倾注了极高的热情。研究者们根据不同理论框架, 从宏观和微观的层面出发,对任务类型、实施条件、 学习者个体条件对语言输入、输出、互动、语言形式 习得效果的影响进行了一系列的研究,以甄别促动 或阻碍二语学习正、负面的内、外在因素及探索课堂有助于青年学者从审稿专家的角度换位思考,主动 反思和预警质疑。论文写作与课题申报之前、之中 和之后均可通过简要回答“六问”来冷静反思,养成 习惯,则可少走弯路,事半功倍。“六问”还适用于以 PPT方式呈现开题报告的提纲,或适用于向导师或 专家征求选题思路的可行性,可让人_目了然并高 效反馈,从而避免选题思路冗长陈述却不知所云,或 思路不清仓促动笔终成“鸡肋”。
最后重点强调三点:(1)“六问”的回答不需要长 篇大论,每个问题的回答只需要言简意赅,切中要害 即可;(2)“六问”的回答切不可走过场,其中任何一 个问题如果尚未能简答清楚,就先不要着急下笔撰 写全文。科研创新的前提之_,是学会放弃10个不 具备较强研究价值的选题,多钓鲸鱼,少钓虾米,多 抱西瓜,少拣芝麻。方向错了,止步就是进步。阻碍 创新的往往不是未知的东西,而是已知的东西。我 们需要提升的,有时是发现问题的能力,有时则是拒 绝低价值研究问题诱惑的能力。理清思路,才能少 走弯路;(3 )要特别重视对前两个问题的简答:_是 对“你想做什么?”的简答,首先要有明确的标题,其 次是要能一句话把研究问题表达清楚;二是对“从什 么起点开始做?”的简答,切不可含糊其词敷衍了事, 要尽可能基于国内外核心期刊近五年的至少5篇文 献,明确指出前人的研究不足。否则,其他问题回答 得再有模有样,也是徒劳,因为问题意识和批判意识 对于科研创新来说最为重要。
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(责任编辑杨丽) 
demonstrate that the sellers phatic greetings from different types of web shops are significantly different. What is more, the TaoBao shops running conditions and age may influence the sellers use of phatic greetings. In order to pursue economic benefits, the sellers may increase the use of polite language on purpose. The present study?s significance lies in its contribution to the promotion and construction of a more harmonious and win-win online shopping environment.
Six Questions for Thesis Writing and Project Application: An Analysis 巳ased on Samples from Foreign Languages and Literatures, by MAO Haoran, p. 35
The six questions for thesis writing and project application include: 
(1)、What problem do you plan to solve? 
(2)、Where will you start off based on literature review?
(3)、What is the research design?
(4)、What will be your innovative ideas and major findings?
(5)、What will be the theoretical and practical significances?
(6)、What guarantees your proposed research? This study, with demonstrations of and comments on thesis and project samples in the field of foreign languages and literatures, provides a thorough account for the priorities and difficulties in answering the questions. It f found that brief and careful answers to and overall reflections on these six questions can help young scholars to judge the value and feasibility of the project, as well as clarify andgenerate innovative ideas in their research. And a waste of time onbiased approaches and insignificant things can thus be prevented.
Four Theoretical/Pedagogical Frameworks and Task-based Language Teaching Research, by YUAN Fangyuan, p. 40
This article traces the development in task-based language teaching research over the past thirty years by discussing the four influential theoretical and pedagogical frameworks developed at different times and around different parameters of task-based language teaching. The four frameworks, pul together, provide us a trace of the historical path that task-based language teaching has evolved over the past thirty years and mirrors the overall advancement of second language acquisition research.
The Interactive Effect of Feedback Strategy and Language Error Type on the Students* Revision in EFL Writing, by WU Wei , p. 47
This study aims to explore how language error typesmediate the effect of different feedback strategies by analyzing a total of 169 feedback points of 43 college EFL student essays and subsequent student revisions. All-Factorial Variance and Multiple comparisons show that feedback strategy, error type , and the interaction between feedback strategy and error type are all significant factors. Post-hoc analysis further reveals that different feedback strategies are needed to effectively help students correct the 4 types of language errors , namely morphological , lexical , syntactic , and discourse errors. The more difficutt the errors are for the students to correct , the more explicit the feedback strategy should be.
巳eyond the 巳lack Arts Movement: Interview with Naoml Long Madgett, by Naomi Long Madgett & LUO Lianggong , p. 58
Naomi Long Madgett (1923- ) is Detroit Poet Laureate ,publisher , educator , and Professor of English Emeritus at Eastern Michigan University. She is author of ten books of poems and an autobiography, and editor of two poetry anthologies, thus a recipient of may honors. As an African American poet and publisher ,Madgett ,though not attached to the Black Arts Movement ,made great contribution to the revival of African American literature in and since the 1960s-70s. Prof. Luo Lianggong interviewed Prof. Madgett when he attended the 72nd CLA Convention in Atlanta , USA. This interview covers the ssues including her literary creation ,poetic ideas ,the influences on her , her communications with and comments upon her contemporary African American writers ,and her contribution as a publisher to the African American literature. This interview presents a unique perspective to the Black Arts Movement and the 1960s-70s African American literature.
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