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人教版新课标高中英语必修一(4)
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必修一(4

(一)

Growing up in rural Malawi, Africa, William Kamkwamba learned to accept that life was hard. He lived with his parents and seven sisters in a small clay house without electricity or running water. Like most boys in his village, William was expected to assist his parents on the family farm, as well as keep up with his school work. Each night, like most Malawians, his family went to bed early because the kerosene oil they needed to light the lamps was costly.

A terrible drought in 2000 left many Malawians hungry,and William’s family was no exception. In 2003 at the age of 13, William and many other children were forced to drop out of school when their parents could no longer afford his schooling. William had to work even harder to help his family, but he wasn’t ready to give up his education. He went to the local library and took out some books to study. One book, called Using Energy,sparked William’s interest in science and gave him an idea that significantly changed his future.

In the book, William found a picture of a windmill (风车),and a brief description of how it could be used to generate electricity from wind. He knew that there was plenty of wind in his village, and realized that if he could build a windmill like that, he could give his family and the people in his village a much better life. There was just one problem. The book didn’t explain how to build a windmill, and neither did any of the other books in the library.

What happened over the next year demonstrated William’s incredible ambition and determination. He began to collect any kinds of materials he thought could be useful—scraps of wood, broken bicycles, old shoes—and started to build a windmill next to his family’s house. He endured many challenges and failures. Other people in his village called him crazy and said his idea would never work. Finally, at the age of 14, William completed his first windmill. When they saw electric lights and heard the sound of music on the radio coming from William house, the village people came running. He had done it. William Kamkwamba had found a way to capture the wind.

Kamkwamba’s autobiography (自传),The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind tells the story of how the rest of the world came to know about his achievements. With the help of international supporters, his village now has clean running water, solar powered lighting, and electric power. As a result of his actions, Kamkwamba was invited to study engineering at Dartmouth College, one of the top-ranking universities in the U. S.. He also travels the world and gives talks about how he made his dream a reality.

1. William went to the local library because________.

A. he wanted to find some materials for his invention  

B. it was his favorite way to kill time and relax

C. he wanted to continue his education   

D. it was believed to be a way to change his fate

2. Paragraph 3 is mainly about_____.

A. why the windmill is so attractive               

B. how William got inspired by a hook

C. why William decided to continue his education   

D. how a windmill works to produce electricity

3. The living conditions in Williams village are much better now mainly because________.

A. William has helped build a power station     

B. the villagers are greatly encouraged by William

C. William、autobiography is locally popular   

D. it has received much outside help

4. William Kamkwamba can be best described as_____.

A. ambitious and determined   

B. honest and forgiving 

C. brave and patient  

D. reasonable and humorous

5. What is the message conveyed in the passage?

A. We should strike while the iron is hot.         

B. A good beginning makes a good end.

C. One who lives his dream can make a difference.

D. You’d better not put all the eggs in one basket.

答案:1. C  2. B  3. D  4. A  5.C

 

(二)

Aiquile Bolivia—more than 80 people died and at least 100 were proved injured in the devastating earthquake last Friday, said Bolivia‘s national Civil Defense Service director Luis Montero.  

The earthquake, which measured 6.6 degree, hit this distant area of eastern Bolivia early Friday morning.

  The small towns of Aiquile and Totora, some 620 kilometers and 645 kilometers east of La Paz separately had a bad effect. Both have been declared disaster areas.

  Scores of people are missing, and as many as 15 000 were left homeless. At least 950 homes in the area have been damaged, and as many as 600 destroyed, Montero said.

1. In the first paragraph, “devastating” means______.

A. frightening         B. astonishing

C. surprising          D. destroying

2. The centre of the earthquake is _______.

A. Aiquile and La Paz        B. Aiquile and Totora

C. La Paz and Totora         D. Bolivia and La Paz

3. How many people suffered the disaster?

A. about 180.          B. a lot more than 15000.

C. only 80.            D. more than 1000.

4. The title of the article is probably ______.

A. The Biggest Earthquake

B. The Earthquake Hit Eastern Bolivia

C. More than 80 People Died

D. 950 Homes Damaged, 600 Homes Destroyed

答案:1. D  2. B  3. B  4. B

(三)

    The Rossi-Forel scale was one of the first seismic scales(地震量表) to describe earthquake intensities(烈度). It was developed by Michele Stefano Conte de Rossi of Italy and Francois-Alphonse Forel of Switzerland in the 1800s. The widely used ten-degree scale was modified(修订) by Italian scientist Giuseppe Mercalli in 1883 and 1902. In 1902 the ten-degree Mercalli scale was improved by Italian physicist Adolfo Cancani and became known as the Mercalli-Cancani-Sieberg(MCS) scale. The MCS scale was later modified and published in English by Harry O. Wood and Frank Neumann in 1931 as the Mercalli-Wood-Neuman(MWN) scale. It was later improved by Charles Richter, the father of the Richter magnitude scale(里克特震级表). The scale is known today as the Modified Mercalli(MM) scale. It is commonly used by scientists around the world to describe the intensity of an earthquake.

    The lower degrees of the MM scale generally deal with the way in which the earthquake is felt by people. The higher numbers of the scale are based on structural(建筑的) damage. The table below is a description of the degrees of the Modified Mercalli scale.

The MM scale

  Scale Ⅰ Not felt except by a very few

  Scale Ⅱ Felt only by a few persons on upper floors

  Scale Ⅲ Felt indoors

  Scale Ⅳ Hanging objects swing

  Scale Ⅴ Felt outdoors

  Scale Ⅵ Felt by all, many frightened & run outdoors

  Scale Ⅶ Difficult to stand

  Scale Ⅷ Damage slight in specially designed structures

  Scale Ⅸ Damage considerable in specially designed structures

  Scale Ⅹ Ground cracked, rail bent

  Scale Ⅺ Bridges destroyed, broad crack in ground

Scale Ⅻ Damage total

1. How many degrees does the Rossi-Forel scale have?

A. Eight           B. Ten

C. Twelve         D. Twenty

2. Which of the following correctly shows the development of the MM scale?

① The MCS scale        ② The MWN scale

③ The Rossi-Forel scale    ④ The Mercalli scale

⑤ The MM scale

A. ③→④→①→②→⑤    B. ③→④→②→①→⑤

C. ④→①→③→②→⑤    D. ④→③→①→②→⑤

3. The lower degrees of the MM scale are based on________.

A. buildings’ damage        B. scientists’’ research

C. people’s feeling          D. animals’ behavior

4. If an earthquake can be felt by everyone, its intensity can be________.

A. Scale Ⅲ            B. Scale Ⅳ

C. Scale Ⅴ            D. Scale Ⅵ

答案:1. B  2. A  3. C  4. D

(四)

A Horrible Earthquake可怕的地震

Dirty water rose in wells and canals before the earthquake. But no one judged that an earthquake was coming. Suddenly, everything shook. It seemed as if the world was at an end. Millions of brick houses and a number of dams were destroyed. Railway tracks became useless bars. Pipes in mines burst and let out smelly steam. Huge cracks trapped cyclists everywhere.

The next day, this event was the headline or main title of all newspapers. With the reporters giving an outline of the disaster, the whole nation was shocked by the damage and the victim’s extreme suffering. People were moved when they read that the survivors comforted each other by saying “Congratulations! You survived!”. So they not only expressed their sympathy sincerely, but also organized together to help the victims right away. The injured were rescued and the dead were buried. The frightened survivors were dug out from under the ruins and were offered shelter, fresh water and electricity. Thanks to people’s help, the loss was minimized.

 

地震前,水井运河里的水都涨涌起来。但是却没人判断出地震即将来临。霎那间,一切都在摇晃,似乎整个世界就要结束数以百万房和许多水坝遭到破坏;铁路轨道都变成无用的煤矿管道纷纷爆裂,发出有臭味的蒸汽;到处都有骑车的人被巨大的裂缝陷住

第二天,所有报纸都纷纷以大字标题或主要标题报道了这一事件记者们描述了灾难大概情况,全都被地震的破坏和灾民们极度的苦难震惊。当人们读到幸存者以“恭喜啊,你还活着。”来互相安慰时,都被感动了。人们不仅衷心地表达了他们的同情,而且还立刻组织起来帮助灾民。员被助了,死者被埋葬了,吓坏的幸存者被从废墟挖出来了,栖身处、净水和电力也很快得到提供。多亏了人们的帮助,灾区的损失被减到了最小。

 

 

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