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人教版新课标高中英语必修一(5)
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必修一(5)
(一)
Robert Frost (1874-1963) was the statesman of American letters in the twentieth-century, a rare national poet who was read and respected by both university professors and everyday citizens. In his life, Frost won four Pulitzer Prizes for his works-more than any other poet in American history. His most famous poems include “The Road Not Taken Fire and Ice” and “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening.” Though he is widely read, Frost is also one of the most misunderstood writers in the United States for the complexity of his poems.
Though born in California, Frost was brought up in New England, where he is inseparably linked. After dropping out of Dartmouth College to seek his literary dream, he remained upset for years, producing collections of works but failing to get enough of them published to make his efforts financially worthwhile. Finally, Frost left the United States in 1912 to see whether his work might be better received in London. It was, and in 1913 his first full collection was published in Great Britain. Fellow American poet Amy Lowell adored Frost’s work and brought it back to the United States, publicizing it insistently. Soon afterwards Frost’s collections became bestsellers, and he a famous figure.
From then on, Frost was on his way to the lifelong respect and recognition for his achievements in poetry. In 1961, he was invited to read a poem for the presidential inauguration (总统就职典礼)of John F. Kennedy. He recited his poem, “The Gift Outright” from memory at the ceremony. This was perhaps his last poetry reading in front of a wide national audience before his death in 1963. More importantly, Frost became the first poet to read a poem at a presidential inauguration.
1. What makes Frost statesman of American letters?
A. The comments of other writers.
B. His literary achievements.
C. The complexity of his poems.
D. His political activities.
2. What do we know about Frost before 1912?
A. He continued writing after his graduation from Dartmouth College.
B. He was well received in London for his first collection.
C. He failed to make much money with his publication.
D. He produced enough works to achieve literary success.
3. According to the passage, what brought Frost immediate success in the US?
A. The literary value of his poetry.
B. The publication of his first collection.
C. The invitation from John F. Kennedy.
D. The recommendation by Amy Lowell.
4. Which of the following would be the best title for the passage?
A. The Literary Life of Robert Frost: An Overview.
B. Robert Frost and the Twentieth Century.
C. Robert Frost: A Historical Figure.
D. The Popularity of Robert Frost.
答案:1. B  2. C  3. D  4. A
(二)
The event that stands out in my memory happened one morning in 1983 when I was 14 years old. I was at home with my mother, getting ready for the afternoon session of school.
I was doing my homework when I heard raised voice. At first I thought nothing of it---customers in the motorcycle shop directly below us often became unruly and loud, but I soon realized this was different.
“Quick! Remove the motorcycle from the shop.” someone yelled.
Then a thick burning smell filled the air. When I opened the front door of our flat to investigate, a thick cloud of smoke, billowing up from the ground floor, greeted me. The motorcycle shop had caught fire.
My mum, who had been working in the kitchen, hurried to the living room. We rushed out of the door and along the corridor through the smoke.
    We were heading towards the stairway at the far end of the corridor when Mum stopped in her tracks. She turned around and headed back the way we came. I had no idea what she was doing, but I followed suit.
    Mum had suddenly remembered the Korean lady in her 70s who lived next door to us, who we called Makcik. Mum began banging on her door, but to no avail. As the smoke thickened around us, I could see many of our neighbors---some still in their pajamas----running for safety.
    “She would have run for safety like everyone else!” I cried.
    Mum refused to give up. “I know she is still inside,” she said as she pounded the door. “Go downstairs, Shaji. Go now!”
    However, frozen with fear, I stood rooted to the spot. By then, both of us were coughing and our eyes were stinging. Time seemed to stand still, though we were probably there for only two or three minutes.
    Just as I was beginning to choke, the door opened. Makcik stood there, totally confused. Mum was right---she had been unaware of what was happening. Grabbing her hand, Mum led Makcik downstairs and outside to a safe spot where people had gathered to witness the fire.
    The firemen had just arrived and set about fighting the blaze, which was reaching up to the second floor above the motorcycle shop.
    Comprehending the gravity of the situation, Makcik broke down. Holding my mother’s hands tightly, and with tears flowing down her cheeks, she spoke to Mum. I could not hear what she said, but there was no mistaking her gratitude. I learned later that Makcik was sleeping when the fire broke out.
   I dread to think what would have happened if Mum had not turned back for her.
   Soon the firemen put out the billowing flames. There were no deaths and injuries, though the motorcycle shop was completely destroyed.
    Although the fire had damaged our corridor badly, it was put out before it could spread into our flat. Our home had been saved, though everything was covered in soot and an awful smell hung in the air. And, sadly, my pet lovebirds were dead.
    I felt terrible for not saving them in my haste. However, the thought of Mum’s courageous act in saving a human life brought great relief.
    Years later, I asked Mum about this incident. She said that she was familiar with Makcik’s daily routine and was certain she would still be sleeping. When I asked if she was scared, Mum replied, “When a loved one is in danger, the thought of fear never crosses the mind.”
During my school days, whenever I wrote an essay about courageous deeds, I always focused on soldiers risking their lives to save others. It never occurred to me to write my mum who had, in her determined way, saved our elderly neighbor. Today I know better. Maria Thomas, a timid and modest lady, someone who would not be mistaken for a superhero, had turned out to be my real hero.
1. It can be inferred from the passage that _____.
A. the author knew nothing about the Korean lady living next door
B. no damage was caused because the fire was put out immediately
C. firemen made no attempt to rescue those trapped in the building
D. makcik survived the big fire owing to my mum’s timely rescue
2. Receiving no response from Makcik, Mum refused to leave because _____.
A. she was sure that the fire wouldn’t threaten her life
B. she knew for sure Makcik was indoors, sleeping
C. she was informed that Makcik was in desperate need of help
D. she was convinced that Makcik was too scared to move 
3. What does the underlined part “to no avail” most probably mean?
A. to one’s disappointment      B. worse still    
C. without success             D. in one’s absence
4. Which of the following can be the best title for the passage?
A. My mother: a superhero     
B. The fire: an unforgettable experience
C. The firefighting: a thrilling story     
D. My neighbor: a narrow escape
答案:1. D  2. B  3. C  4. A
(三)
    Willliam Caxton was born in Kent, sometime in the early part of the fifteenth century( probably between 1415—1422 ). During his teens, he was sent to London to study as a merchant(商人). Soon, Caxton became a successful wool merchant and moved to Bruges, the center of the wool trade at that time. From 1462 to 1470 he served as governor of the “English National of Merchant Adventurers”, which allowed him to represent his fellow merchants, as well as act a diplomat(外交官) for the English King, Edward Ⅳ. Caxton became a member of the household of Margaret, Duchess of Burgundy, the sister of Edward Ⅳ. She became an important supporter and influence in Caxton’s life.
    In the early 1470s, Caxton traveled to Cologne in order to learn about the art of printing. He studied under the famous printer Johann Veldener. Having learned the art of the printing and bought a set of types, Caxton returned to Bruges and printed his first book Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye. It was a book that Caxton had translated himself from French to English, and more importantly, it was the first book ever to be printed in English.
    In 1476, Caxton returned to his motherland and set up a printing press in London. In 1477, he produced the first printed book in England, saying of the Philosophers. Over the following years, Caxton’s press would produce over one hundred books, including Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales and La Morte d’Arthur. Caxton died in 1491 or 1492. 
    Today, William Caxton is remembered as one of the most important figure in the history of English book printing. The books he printed are much sought after by collectors and tend to command very high prices when sold at auction(拍卖).
1. Where did William Caxton print his first book?
A. In London.              B. In Bruges.
C. In Cologne.             D. In Paris.
2. Which of the following is the first book printed in the UK?
A. Canterbury Tales.              
B. La Morte d’Arthur.
C. Sayings of the Philosophers.     
D. Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye.
3. Which shows the correct order of the following events?
a. Caxton became a successful merchant.
b. Caxton went to Cologne to learn to print.
c. Caxton set up a printing press in London.
d. Caxton produced the first printed book in English.
A. b.a.c.d               B. a.b.c.d
C. d.a.b.c               D. a.b.d.c
4. The main purpose of the passage is to________.
A. let us know more about the printing industry
B. look at the influence of printing on language
C. give us a general introduction to Caxton’s life
D. describe the history of English book printing
答案:1. B  2. C  3. D  4. C

(四)
The Great President 伟大的总统
As the founder of the republic, the president had many good qualities. Before coming to power, he was a generous lawyer. He was willing to selflessly help everyone who turned to him. He accepted no fee to offer legal guidance and opinions to those who were out of work or uneducated. Later, believing all mankind to be equal, he devoted himself to stopping the unfair anti-black laws. He set up the Black Youth League and was voted to be the leader. However, though he kept peaceful principles without violence and terror, his mean enemies still blew up his house and attacked his relatives, and he himself couldn’t escape being sentenced to 30 years in prison.
Not fearing of the prison guards’ cruelty, he kept active and begged no mercy from them. As a matter of fact, he was always hopeful and never lost heart during the stage even though he was in trouble.
Finally, people rewarded him with the leader’s position and a gold blanket. 

作为共和国的创始人,这位总统具备许多的优秀品质。还在掌权之前,他就是一位慷慨的律师。他愿意无私地帮助那些向他求助的人。他免费为失业的,或没有受过教育的人提供法律指导和意见。后来,因为相信所有人类都是生来平等,他全身心投入到废除不平等的反黑人法律工作中。他建立了黑人青年团并被选为领袖。然而,尽管他坚持没有暴力、没有恐怖的和平原则,卑鄙的敌人还是炸毁了他的家、袭击了他的亲属,他自己也无法逃脱被判30年徒刑的遭遇。
在狱中,他毫不畏惧狱警的残酷,始终保持积极的态度,不向他们乞求怜悯。实际上,他在任何一个困境时期都充满着希望,从未灰心。
最后,人们以领袖的职位和一块金毯子回报了他的贡献。

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