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人教版新课标高中英语必修二(1)
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必修二(1)
(一)
No one is sure how the ancient Egyptians built the pyramids near Cairo. But a new study suggests they used a little rock‘n’roll. Long-ago builders could have attached wooden poles to the stones and rolled then across the sand, the scientists say.
     “Technically, I think what they’re proposing is possible,” physicist Daniel Bonn said.
People have long puzzled over how the Egyptians moved such huge rocks. And here’s no obvious answer. On average, each of the two mollions big stones weighed about as much as a large pickup truck. The Egyptians smehow moved the stone blocks to the pyramid site from about one kilometer away.
The most popular view is that Egyptian workes slid the blocks along smooth paths. Many scientists suspect wokers first would have put the blocks on sleds(滑板). Then they would have dragged them along paths. To make the work easier, workers may have lubricated the paths either with wet clay or with the fat from cattle. Bonn has now tested this idea by building small sleds and dragging heavy objects over sand.
Evidence from the sand supports this idea. Researchers found small amounts of fat, as well as a large amount of stone and the remains of paths.
However, physicist Joseph West think there might have been a simpler way, led the new study. West said, “I was inspired while watching a television program showing how sleds might have helped with pyramid construction. I thought, ‘Why don’t they just try rolling the things? A square could be turned into a rough sort of wheel by attaching wooden poles to its sides, he realized. That, he notes, should make a block of stone “a lot easier to roll than a square”.
So he tried it.
    He and his students tied some poles to each of four sides of a 30-kilogram stone block. That action turned the block into somewhat a wheel. Then they placed the block on the ground.
    They wrapped one end of a rope around the block and pulled. The researchers found they could easily roll the block along different kinds of paths. They calculated that rolling the block required about as much force as moving it along a slippery(滑的)path.
    West hasn’t tested his idea on larger blocks, but he thinks rolling has clear advantages over sliding. At least, workers wouldn’t have needed to carry cattle fat or water to smooth the paths.
1. It’s widely believed that the stone blocks were moved to the pyramid site by ______.
A. rolling them on roads
B. pushing them over the sand
C. sliding them on smooth paths
D. dragging them on some poles
2. The underlined part “lubricated the paths” in Paragraph 4 means____.
A. made the path wet
B. made the path hard
C. made the path wide
D. made the path slippery
3. What does the underlined word “it”in Paragraph 7 refer to?
A. Rolling the blocks with poles attached.
B. Rolling the blocks on wooden wheels.
C. Rolling poles to move the blocks.
D. rolling the blocks with fat.
4. Why is rolling better than sliding according to West ?
A. Because more force is needed for sliding.
B. Because rolling work can be done by fewer cattle.
C. Because sliding on smooth road is more dangerous.
D. Because less preparation on path is needed for rolling.
5. What is the text mainly about ?
A. An experiment on ways of moving blocks to the pyramid site.
B. An application of the method of moving blocks to the pyramid site.
C. An argument about different methods of moving blocks to the pyramid site.
D. An introduction to a possible new way of moving blocks to the pyramid site.
答案:1.C  2. D  3. A  4. D  5. D
(二)
Every year, millions of Americans see their personal information leak into the wrong hands. Maybe there’s spyware on the their computer, or a service they use suffered a security reach, leaving customers at the risk of exposure. Or perhaps their password is easy to guess.
Don’t fear: You can easily set up proper defenses. Here’s how.
     ● Clean Your Computer and Smartphone
Before you put new security measures into place, make sure your devices are as spotless as possible. This means installing a good antivirus program and taking the time to clear out any spy — or malware that may have already infected your system. These days, it’s also worth it to make sure your phone is safe from viruses. iPhones are less likely to be targeted by spyware, but Android users should download the Lookout app to scan their devices and ensure everything is as it should be.
● Secure Your WiFi
It’s fairly easy for potential criminals to gain access to your information if they’re able to share your connection — that’s why you want to be careful when using public WiFi. Even though you put security measures into place a couple of years ago, it’s a good idea to refresh your settings.
● Use passwords
What you’ve heard is true: Passwords should use a variety of special characters, numerals, letters, and cases when possible.
● Check the shopping security
Take care when shopping online. Always check the security symbols when using an online site for shopping. If the lock icon encryption (加密)  is not there, do not give out credit details. Also, check that the site is legal — never go to a site from a random email and start shopping online.
Keep a separate credit card just for online shopping. This will make it easier to cancel if something bad does happen and your other credit card for “in real life” can still be used uninfluenced.
Don’t store information on any store’s website. It may be convenient but it’s also a possible loss to you if the site is hacked.
1. This passage is mainly about ___________.
A. ways of avoiding identity theft      
B. tips of freeing computers from viruses
C. measures to ensure network security   
D. steps to keep track of passwords
2. To put new security measures into place, we need to ___________.
A. clear out everything in the system        
B. make a random selection of network
C. get rid of potential spyware            
D. refresh the infected system
3. According to the passage, the risk of exposing personal information may possibly be caused by ___________.
A. the applications of antivirus programs    
B. the practice of using public WiFi
C. the difficult access to passwords         
D. the separate credit card for online shopping
4. Which of the following is an improper way to shop online?
A. Adopting a unique password for every website.
B. Shopping online at reliable websites.
C. Keeping credit details safe by checking security symbols.
D. Monitoring credit card by storing information online.
答案:1. A  2. C  3. B  4. D

(三)
    In 1900, English archaeologist Arthur Evans discovered the ruins of a royal palace at Knossos, on the north coast Crete. He linked the palace to the ancient Gretan King Minos, from whose name he invented the term “Minoan”. We don’t know what these people called themselves. We know of the Minoans only through their ruins. So much of what we know of Minoan history of nothing more than a good guess, and good guesses are, I should warn, especially likely to be wrong.
    The archaeological evidence points to only a few reasonable certainties about Minoan history. Abound 3000 BC. Crete was settled by a people who probably came from Asia Minor, who, by 2000 BC, was already living in cities, trading with other nations in the Medierranean, and using pictographs. They built magnificent(宏伟的) palace centers at Knossos, Phaistos, and Kato Zakros. We have no idea what language they spoke, but they certainly spoke a non-Hellenic language (that is, a language not closely related to Greek) and probably spoke a non-Indo-European language.
    The Minoans were a great commercial people and their trade was widespread. The Egyptians were highly familiar with the Cretans, who even appear in Egyptian art, Cretan artifacts(史前古器物) turn up all over Asia Minor, and they seem to have been involved in trade with the tribes living on the Greek mainland.
    All of this concentrated trade activity produced great wealth for the Cretans, which went into magnificent building projects and technological development. The Cretans seem to be the only people in the ancient world that would make multi-room buildings for a large part of society including even the poorest people. The Cretans were the first to build a plumbing system(管道系统) in their buildings. And Cretans society seems to be the first “leisure(休闲)” society in existence, in which a large part of human activity focused on leisure activities, such as sports. The most popular sports were boxing and bull-jumping. Women activity took part in both of these sports.
1. According to the passage, the Minoans________.
A. spoke a language similar to Greek
B. led a city life about 4,000 years ago
C. came to Asia Minor around 2000 BC
D. lived in a peaceful and classless society
2. The fourth paragraph is developed________.
A. by space          B. by example
C. by time           D. by comparison
3. We can infer from the passage that________.
A. the Minoans were good at science and medicine
B. what we know about the Minoans is very limited
C. Minoan culture borrowed much from Egyptian culture
D. Minoan culture was based on advanced farming technique
4. In writing the passage, the author aims to________.
A. introduce us to the Minoan civilization
B. study the great art of ancient Greece
C. show how the Minoans’ ruins were discovered
D. discuss the important of the cretans’ culture
答案:1. B  2. B  3. B  4. A
(四)
A Brave Maid 勇敢的女仆
A wooden vase from the Ming Dynasty at the entrance of the reception hall amazed everyone. The artists designed it in a rare style and selected valuable jewels to decorate it. People thought highly of its fancy colour of honey and the beautiful paintings on it. 
The vase used to belong to a former castle. But when the country was at war, the enemy troops exploded the castle. Debates on how the vase survived went on and on. In order to remove people’s doubt, a team of no less than 20 people carried out an informal investigation. The evidences they found showed that a maid took the vase apart and asked a sailor to sink it in a local well. She never gave away the secret even under the cruel trial of the enemies who were in search of treasures.
It is worth giving this brave maid a fortune in return.

接待大厅入口处的明朝木制花瓶 使每个人都惊奇不已。艺术家以一种罕有的风格设计它,并挑选了贵重的珠宝装饰它。人们高度赞赏它那蜂蜜般的奇特颜色,还有上面绘制的绘画。
这个花瓶曾经属于一座从前的城堡,但在战争期间,敌人的军队炸毁了城堡,于是关于这个花瓶是如何幸存下来的争论就一直在持续着。为了解开人们的疑问,一个由不少于20人的调查队开展了一次非正式的调查。他们找到的证据表明,有个女仆 把花瓶拆开,然后让一名水手把它沉到当地的一个水井里。她从来没有泄露这个秘密,即使是在搜寻财宝的敌人残酷的审讯下。
这位女仆真是值得给予一大笔钱作为对她的回报。

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