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人教版新课标高中英语必修四(1)
信息来源:中学英语教师培训资源网  浏览次数:825
必修四(1)
(一)
Dr. Maria Montessori (1870—1952) seems to have had the right ideas when it comes to educating children. Her approach to education and the basis of what is Montessori philosophy(1) have long been held in high regard. Dr. Montessori was the first female to earn a Doctor of Medicine degree from the University of Rome in 1896. Her background was in science, but she became a reformer of education.
Her theory, revolutionary for its time and perhaps still so today, is based on the premise(前提) that educational approaches are only effective when they address and support the nature of the individual child. Montessori came to this conclusion(2) after observing children, many of whom were mentally handicapped(3). The Montessori philosophy and approaches are based on developing ways to allow a child to set free his personality, liberating his potential(4) and inner life.  
The atmosphere in a Montessori classroom is very calm and orderly, as are the children, who are focused. The objective is to create an environment and atmosphere that encourage concentration. The Montessori philosophy believes that children learn the best when they are left to their own devices in a supervised environment where they have access to child-sized practical tools and open-ended activities with which they can work uninterruptedly. When a child is allowed to engage in an activity, calmly and repetitively this improves social interaction(5) as well as facilitates learning and has a soothing effect on the child.
The Montessori approaches is quite different from what is found in regular schools where the teacher is in command. The Montessori teacher is a guide and does not specifically tell the child what to do or how to do it.
Dr. Montessori received three nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize for her extensive work regarding the characteristics of children.
注释:
(1) philosophy n.哲学,哲理
(2) come to … conclusion 得出……结论
(3) handicapped adj. 残疾的;有生理缺陷的
(4) potential n. (人的)潜力,潜能
(5) interaction n. 相互作用,相互影响;交流
长难句分析:
Her theory, revolutionary for its time and perhaps still so today, is based on the premise that educational approaches are only effective when they address and support the nature of the individual child.她的理论在当时甚至现在也是具有革命性的,其前提是:教育方法只有在重视并支持每个孩子的天性时才是有效的。
这是一个复合句。句子的主语是her theory,谓语是is based on,revolutionary for its time and perhaps still so today是定语,修饰句子的主语。另外,that引导一个同位语从句,说明premise的具体内容。
1. What is paid special attention to according to the Montessori philosophy?
A. Cooperation among students.       
B. The sound mind of a child.
C. An active learning atmosphere.      
D. The personality of the individual child.
2. We learn from the second paragraph that the Montessori philosophy ________.
A. has been out of date today
B. is still very advanced tody
C. is still not accepted today
D. is mainly intended for mentally handicapped children
3. In a Montessori classroom, a teacher ________.
A. acts as a guide
B. tells the child what to do
C. takes control of the class
D. lets the child do whatever he likes
4. Which of the following is true about Montessori?
A. She had no achievements in science.
B. She developed her theory through studying medicine.
C. She has won the Nobel Peace at least once.
D. She is very famous as a reformer of education.
答案:1.D  2.B  3.A   4.D
(二)
    During her sixty-year career performing, Lena Horne entertained audiences with her beauty and rich, emotional voice. She used her fame to fight social injustices (1) toward African-Americans.
    Lena Horne was born in New York in 1917. At sixteen, Lena Horne became a dancer at a famous club in New York City. After taking voice lessons, she soon became a singer. In 1940, Lena Horne became the first African-American to perform with an all-white jazz band. After performing at a club in Hollywood, California, she caught the attention of filmmakers. She soon began making movies. Her films became very popular. In the 1940’s, Lena Horne was the first African-American in Hollywood to sign a long-term contract(合约) with a major movie studio. Her deal with MGM stated that she would never play the role of a servant. She refused to play roles that represented African-Americans rudely. But this refusal also limited her movie career.
    Lena Horne once said that World War Ⅱ helped make her a star. She was popular with both black and white soldiers. She sang on army radio programs and traveled to perform for the troops. Once, she noticed that German prisoners of war were permitted to sit closer to the stage than black soldiers. She was very angry. These experiences led to Lena Horne’s work in the civil rights movement.
    Lena Horne sang at civil rights gatherings. She took part in the March on Washington protest in 1963. It was during this event that Martin Luther King Junior gave his “I have a dream” speech. She protested(2) racial separation at the hotels where she performed. She took action so that she and her musicians would be permitted to stay in those hotels. Black musicians at the time generally stayed in black neighborhoods.
    Lena Horne died in New York in 2010.
注释:
(1) injustice n. 不公平
(2) protest v. 抗议,反对
长难句分析:
(1) It was during this event that Martin Luther King Junior gave his “I have a dream” speech. 正是在这次抗议期间,马丁•路德•金发表了他著名的演讲《我有一个梦想》。
本句是强调句,强调句结构为“It is/was +被强调部分+that/who…”,此句是对时间状语during this event进行强调。
(2) She took action so that she and her musicians would be permitted to stay in those hotels. 她积极采取行动,这样她和乐手们就能住在这些宾馆里了。
这是一个复合句。句中so that 引导结果状语从句,从句中使用了被动语态。
1. Which of the following is the CORRECT order of Lena Horne’s life?
a. She became a singer.                 
b. She died in New York
c. She began making movies.
d. She took part in the March on Washington protest.
e. She became a dancer at a famous club.
A. e, c, d, a, b              B. b, a, c, d, e
C. a, c, b, e, d              D. e, a, c,d, b
2. We can infer from the passage that ________.
A. black actresses often played roles of servants in the film in the 1940’s.
B. black women were forbidden to perform in the 1940’s.
C. Lena Horne liked staying at hotel very much.
D. Lena Horne didn’t make any films in the 1960’s.
3. Why was Lena Horne angry?
A. Because she was ill-treated.
B. Because black soldiers were badly treated by the army.
C. Because she was refused to perform together with white actors.
D. Because white soldiers insulted her.
4. What is the main idea of the fourth paragraph?
A. Lena Horne was a friend of Martin Luther King Junior’s.
B. Lena Horne took an active part in political activities.
C. Lena Horne was involved in civil rights activities.
D. Lena Horne protested racial separation at the hotels.
答案:1.D  2.A  3.B  4.C
(三)
    Sandra Cisneros was born in Chicago in 1954 to a Mexican American family. As only girl in a family of seven children, she often felt like she had “seven fathers” because her six brothers, as well as her father, tried to control her. Feeling shy and unimportant, she retreated into books. Despite her love of reading, she did not do well in elementary school because she was too shy to participate.
    In high school, with the encouragement of one particular teacher, Cisneros improved her grades and worked for school literary(1) magazine. Her father encouraged her to go to college because he thought it would be a good way for her to find a husband. Cisneros did attend college, but instead of searching a husband, she found a teacher who helped her join the famous graduate writing program at the University of Iowa. At the university’s writers’ Workshop, however, she felt lonely—a Mexican American from a poor neighborhood among students from wealthy families. The feeling of being so difficulty helped Cisneros find her “creative voice”.
    “It was not until this moment when I considered myself truly different that my writing acquired(2) a voice. I knew I was a Mexican woman, but I didn’t think it had anything to do with why I felt so much imbalance in my life, but it had everything to do with it! That’s when I decided I would write about something my classmates couldn’t write about.”
    Cisneros published her first work, The House on Mango Street, when she was twenty-nine. The book tells about a young Mexican American girl growing up in a Spanish-speaking area in Chicago, much like the neighborhood in which Cisneros lived as a child. The book won an award in 1985 and has been used in classes from high school through graduate school level. Since then, Cisneros has published several books of poetry, a children’s book, and short-story collection.
注释:
(1) literary adj. 文学(上)的
(2) acquire vt. 获得,取得;学到
长难句分析:
    The book tells about a young Mexican American girl growing up in a Spanish-speaking area in Chicago, much like the neighborhoods in which Cisneros lived as a child.这本书讲述的是在芝加哥讲西班语的居住区长大的一名墨西哥裔的美国女孩,很像希斯内罗丝小时后居住的社区。
    此句中growing up in a Spanish-speaking area in Chicago为现代分词短语作后置定语修饰a young Mexican American girl;in which Cisneros lived as a child为which引导定语从句,修饰先行词the neighborhoods。
1. Which of the following is TURE about Cisneros in her childhood?
A. She had seven brothers.
B. She felt herself nobody.
C. She was too shy to go to school.
D. She did not have any good teachers.
2. The graduate program gave Cisneros a chance to________.
A. work for a school magazine
B. run away from her family
C. make a lot of friends
D. develop her writing style
3. According to Cisneros, what played the decisive(决定性的) role in her success?
A. Her early years in college.
B. Her training in the Workshop.
C. Her feeling of being different.
D. Her childhood experience.
4. What can we learn about The House on Mango Street?
A. It is quite popular among students.
B. It is only book ever written by Cisneros.
C. It wasn’t successful as it was written in Spanish.
D. It won an award when Cisneros was twenty-nine.
答案:1. B  2. D  3. C  4. A
(四)
A Woman Doctor-Lina 女医生丽娜
Born in a pigs’ nest, Lina led a poor life in her childhood. She was looked down upon by the children of her generation. But she intended to become a doctor after she came across Lin Qiaozhi by chance, who was delivering medical courses to an audience crowding around her. Before moving off, Lin inspired her to carry on her study. With Lin’s support, Lina entered an institute and studied hard sparing no time for entertainment. Her being outspoken and modest won respect for her. Her excellent arguing skills and observation ability put others into the shade.
Now, Lina has become a specialist in human beings’ emergency sickness. Her kindness and considerate behavior to the poor were well known. The organization she founded carried out campaigns and welfare projects to help cut the death rate for the poor. Her job was hard but worthwhile. She often refers to the connection between her achievement and Lin Qiaozhi, and says that her poor childhood is the bond between her and the poor.

丽娜出生在猪圈里,童年过着贫穷的生活,被和她同辈的孩子看不起。但是在她偶然遇见了林巧芝之后却打定注意想要成为一名医生,当时林巧芝正在给拥挤在她身边的观众传授医疗课程,在离开之前,林巧芝鼓舞她继续坚持学习。在林的支持下,丽娜进入了一所学院。她努力学习,毫不浪费时间玩闹娱乐。她的坦诚和谦虚为她赢得了尊敬,她优秀的辩论技巧和观察能力使其他的人都黯然失色。

现在,丽娜已经成为一名人类紧急病症专家。她对穷人的好心和考虑周到的一举一动都众所周知,她建立的组织开展各种活动和福利项目来为穷人减少死亡率。她的工作艰苦却很值得。她常常提到她的成就和林巧芝之间的联系,还总是说她贫穷的童年就是她与穷人之间的纽带。

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